Collaborative Research (Joint Usage/Research Center Program)

Type A Research Projects
Project Coordinator(s)
Reconstructing Post WWII Japanese Film History through Oral History Archives TANIGAWA, Takeshi (2016.4-2019.3)
Foucauldian Studies : Reassessment and New Developments in the Human Sciences KOIZUMI, Yoshiyuki (2017.4-2020.3)
Formation of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion : Reconstruction of the medical history in medieval and early modern Japan NAGANO, Hitoshi (2018.4-2021.3)


Type B Research Projects
Project Coordinator(s)
Social and Economic Institutions in China during the Periods of Transition MURAKAMI, Ei (2016.4-2019.3)
Empirical Research on Digital Analysis of Classical Chinese Texts YASUOKA, Kōichi (2016.4-2019.3)
Brahmanism and Hinduism: Change and Continuity in South Asian Society and Religion FUJII, Masato (2016.4-2019.3)
Chain Reactions and Transformations in the Meanings of Racism in Asia TAKEZAWA, Yasuko (2016.4-2019.3)
Exploring Life and Creation: The Studies of Umwelten FUJIHARA, Tatsushi
ISHII, Miho (2017.4-2020.3)
Interaction and Acculturation of Knowledge between the East and the West: A Pan-Asian Approach toward the History of Science in Asia TAKEDA, Tokimasa (2017.4-2020.3)
Narratives on Violence, Religion and Gender/Sexuality TANAKA, Masakazu (2018.4-2020.3)
Aspects of Historical Development and Succession in the Tibetan Civilization IKEDA, Takumi, (2018.4-2021.3)


Type C Research Projects
Project Coordinator(s)
A Study of the Vādhūla Śrautasūtra IKARI, Yasuke
FUJII, Masato (2015.4-2019.3)
A Study on Mao Zedong from the Viewpoint of Humanities ISHIKAWA, Yoshihiro (2015.4-2019.3)
A Study on Frontiers and Trans-frontiers in Pre-modern Eurasia INABA, Minoru (2015.4-2019.3)
Studies on the Buddhist Cave-temples of the Northern Dynasties OKAMURA, Hidenori (2015.4-2020.3)
Sources of Ancient Chinese History ASAHARA, Tatsuro (2016.3-2019.3)
Fundamental Research of the Kanseki Repository WITTERN, Christian (2016.4-2021.3)
Buddhist Sutras and Doctrines for Chinese Laity FUNAYAMA, Tōru (2016.4-2020.3)
Study on the Excavated Manuscripts of the Qin Dynasty MIYAKE, Kiyoshi (2016.4-2021.3)
A Bibliographic Research on Old Chinese Books Previously Housed in the Kyoto Institute of the Academy of Oriental Culture YAGI, Takeshi (2016.4-2021.3)
Buddhist Sculptures and Their Inscriptions in the Longmen Caves of the Northern Dynasties INAMOTO, Yasuo (2017.4-2020.3)
Modern Kyoto and Culture TAKAGI, Hiroshi (2017.4-2020.3)
Humanities in the 21st Century: An Attempt at Understanding Our Age OKADA, Akeo
KOSEKI, Takashi
SATŌ, Junji (2018.4-2021.3)
A Study about the Formation of Business Circles in Imperial Japan: 1895-1945 KAGOTANI, Naoto (2018.4-2021.3)
Warfare and Diplomacy in Pre-modern Eastern Eurasia IWAI, Shigeki
FURUMATSU, Takashi (2018.4-2021.3)
A Study of East Asia in the Third Century MORISHITA, Shōji (2018.4-2021.3)



Type A


Reconstructing Post WWII Japanese Film History through Oral History Archives

Coordinator: TANIGAWA, Takeshi (2016.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
Film Studies in Japan tends to focus on textual analyses performed by researchers from various fields of the humanities, such as aesthetics or literature. The approach to films from the point of view of social sciences, such as studies of film industry, cultural systems, cultural policies, or the effect on the audience, is currently lacking. Nevertheles, before film started being understood as art, it developed as “show business” or as entertainment, and how a film was made, how it was shown to the audience, and how that audience received it are matters of equal importance to the textual analysis of the film. Researchers from the humanities usually focus on the film director or cinematographer, but there are many other types of staff in film business whom the researcher should focus on, such as scripters, sword fighting choreographers, production designers as well as distributors, publicity staff, theater staff, etc. The existence of the “movie fan,” as the subject at the receiving end of the film, is also important. This research project aims to shed light on the characteristics of the development of film culture, focusing on its social and economic aspects , through archiving the experience of the people who participated in the creation of film culture in various forms.
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Foucauldian Studies : Reassessment and New Developments in the Human Sciences

Coordinator: KOIZUMI, Yoshiyuki (2017.4 - 20209.3)
Project Description
At the center of Michel Foucault’s colossal work, whose corpus is nowadays almost completed, one finds his attempts at a historical criticism of the “human sciences” originating in Western modernity. Foucault’s work, which lies at the intersection of reviews of empirical research and philosophical speculation, has a wide political and practical range, which is not reducible to simple epistemology; it constitutes an indispensable reference in human and social sciences, the value of which is more and more important in today's world.Yet, among the attempts to apply Foucauldian methodology in one’s own field by either adopting or criticizing Foucault’s position, those that analyze in depth the changes as well as the inherent consistency of his work are not numerous. Moreover, while Foucault’s work is mainly examined from within the framework of the history of philosophy or the history of ideas, attempts at determining the significance of Foucault’s own reexamination of the historical and contemporary movements in the different fields of “human sciences” remain rare.The objective of this research seminar is to enable leading researchers in various fields of the “human sciences" to work together in order to bring out the significance of Foucault’s work in its totality, and to determine the historical value and actual potential of Foucault’s criticism of the “human sciences”.
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Formation of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion : Reconstruction of the medical history in medieval and early modern Japan

Coordinator: NAGANO, Hitoshi (2015.4 - 2018.3)
Project Description
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Type B


Social and Economic Institutions in China during the Periods of Transition

Coordinator: MURAKAMI, Ei (2016.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
In this study, we examine how institutions such as customs, common sense, rules, orders, and behavioral patterns regulating Chinese society and economy, were preserved or transformed during periods of transition, i.e. from late Ming to early Qing, from late Qing to early Republican, or after the 1980’s. The economic developments that have taken place in China during the last 20 years have attracted many foreigners seeking business opportunities. As the contact opportunities increased both in and out of China, various conflicts arose because of cultural and behavioral differences between the native Chinese and the foreigners. Thus, it became important for us to understand the social and economic institutions in China. On the other hand, recent studies about global history have contributed to the advancement of comparative historical studies, mainly in the English-speaking world. However, these studies do not fully explain the “great divergence” between Western Europe and China, or the “small divergence” between China and Japan since the nineteenth century. This is because they do not properly understand the regional differences in social and economic institutions”. This project aims to carefully investigate Chinese social and economic institutions from various angles, in order to address the issues mentioned above.
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Empirical Research on Digital Analysis of Classical Chinese Texts

Coordinator: YASUOKA, Kōichi (2016.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
In our recent research we have developed a method to analyze classical Chinese texts. In our method, we use an original morphological analyzer based on MeCab. We proposed an original four-level word-class system for classical Chinese on the MeCab-based analyzer. We designed the top level of the word-class system to represent the predicate-object structure of classical Chinese. The second level is the ordinary word-class of classical Chinese, consisting of: “nouns,” “pronouns,” “numerals,” “verbs,” “prepositions,” “adverbs,” “auxiliary verbs,” “particles,” and “interjections.” The third and fourth levels are word-subclasses describing the detailed behavior of the words in classical Chinese texts. In other words, we excluded the “adjective” from the second level of our word-class system, without precisely examining the effect of the lack of the category “adjective” would have on our morphological analyzer. In this research we will examine the effectiveness of our four-level word-class system,focusing on the categories of “verb,” “preposition,” “adverb,” and “auxiliary verb” in the second level. We will also examine the validity of the third and fourth levels of our word-class system.
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Brahmanism and Hinduism: Change and Continuity in South Asian Society and Religion

Coordinator: FUJII, Masato (2016.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
Brahmanism and Hinduism, although the latter succeeded the former historically, have coexisted, mingled, and influenced each other as two fundamental religious and social systems in India. The present three-year research project intends to shed fresh light on change and continuity in South Asian society and religion by studying the diachronic and synchronic relationships between Brahmanism, Hinduism, and other religions such as Buddhism and Jainism, which have kept a certain distance from these two mainstreams.
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Chain Reactions and Transformations in the Meanings of Racism in Asia

Coordinator: TAKEZAWA, Yasuko (2016.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
Most of the existing literature on racism has dealt with people of color as research subjects. However, racism in Asia cannot be explained within such a color-based paradigm. For example, racism exercised by “Japanese” people, who are non-“whites,” involves the process of racialization of physically invisible, marginalized groups, by the distinction between the self and the other through political, economic, and legal systems. Furthermore, this intersects with the ambivalent gaze towards “white” Westerners, making racism in Asia multi-layered and complex. In this collaborative research project, we study the reception and transformation of racism in Asia, by examining intellectual and scientific discourses, popular culture, and other related materials from a cross-regional perspective.
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Exploring Life and Creation: The Studies of Umwelten

Coordinators: FUJIHARA, Tatsushi; ISHII, Miho (2017.4 - 2020.3)
Project Description
By focusing on the lives, skills, interactions, and boundaries of both humans and nonhuman beings, this research explores a new field in the humanities. Jakob von Uexküll, a German biologist, has proposed the idea of Umwelt, i.e., the unique and entwined relationship between a creature and its environment. This notion presents a novel perspective by which to pluralize the ‘natural worlds’ of creatures, thus criticizing the anthropocentric idea of a sole ‘world’. The notion of Umwelt has provoked broad arguments in both the natural and the human sciences. The influence of Uexküll’s work can be found, for instance, in Viktor von Weizsäcker’s influential book Der Gestaltkreis, and also in the work of Bin Kimura. Moreover, since the 1990s, we find an interesting common trend in various fields of the humanities: studies of the environment are flourishing in history, new research in human-nonhuman relations is developing in anthropology, and inquiries into human-animal relations and ethology are evident in philosophy. This development shows that the humanities have now broadened their reach beyond anthropocentrism and are now aiming to expound new approaches to the exploration of the lives and lived worlds of both human and nonhuman beings. This research project, which is based on both philosophical arguments and concrete case studies, investigates the comprehensive issues concerning life and Umwelt. It tackles various critical topics, such as agriculture, natural and man-made disasters, mining developments, religious practices, illness and care, and scientific technology. Through a thorough investigation of the lives of, and the interaction between human and nonhuman beings, as well as of their unique Umwelt, this project seeks to understand the ‘worlding’ of human beings as a part of life on the planet.
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Interaction and Acculturation of Knowledge between the East and the West: A Pan-Asian Approach toward the History of Science in Asia

Coordinator: TAKEDA, Tokimasa (2017.4 - 2020.3)
Project Description
In the pursuit of understanding nature, texts, artefacts and cultural knowledge from foreign lands often play a stimulating role and, in some cases, bring about major conceptual breakthroughs. In the case of China, the science and technology introduced from the "Western world", i.e., India, the Islamic world and Europe, had a profound, revolutionary effect. Via China, this body of scientific and technological knowledge was further transmitted to Korea, Japan and Vietnam, where it underwent different forms of indigenization. In pre-modern Japan, while the influence of new culture from China continued to be felt, scientific knowledge from the Jesuit missionaries and the Dutch was also directly introduced. Thus, a unique hybrid of pre-modern Japanese scientific culture was formed. This research project focuses on the Buddhist astronomy exemplified by texts such as the Xiuyao jing 宿曜經, and the reception of "Western knowledge" during the late Ming and early Qing periods. By examining the formation and transformation of cosmology and theories on nature and life, we hope to shed light on the interaction between, and the acculturation of, knowledge from the East and the West, and to ultimately reveal the underlying structure of traditional Asian science from a pan-Asian perspective.
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Narratives on Violence, Religion and Gender/Sexuality

Coordinator: TANAKA, Masakazu (2018.4 - 2020.3)
Project Description
This project aims to analyze violence, religion and gender/sexuality in contemporary societies in from an encompassing perspective, by focusing on their narratives. Violence here ranges from military activities in wars and the oppression of minority ethnic groups or sexual minority groups, and to personal conflicts to and sexual violence. First, tThis project deals with cases based on fieldwork carried out by each member. Secondly, analyzing both the cases and their narratives surrounding them are analyzed in from a comparative perspective. Thirdly, it It studies violence and oppression, as well as the control of religion and sexuality with reference to the extensive activities of states and international organizations. The project explores the roles of the judicial system, medical practices and art works to in overcoming social issues caused by violence, religion and gender/sexuality.
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Aspects of Historical Development and Transmission of the Tibetan Civilization

Coordinator: IKEDA, Takumi (2018.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
From the 7th century, the Tibetan civilization—its unique religions, rituals, languages, and social systems—gradually permeated the neighboring cultural areas via direct communications and trade. Our project compiles the results of interdisciplinary research carried out on the inter-cultural communication among these areas, reviewing and evaluating the aspects of the historical development and expansion of the Tibetan civilization in the Eurasian world. The Tibeto-Himalayan area, while influenced by preceding Asian civilizations, has developed an individual civilization. The Tibet civilization grew stronger after assimilating Buddhism in the 11-12th century, and by communicating with the neighboring cultural areas, it spread through Mongol to East Asia; Moreover, its influence proved effective even in the modern European world of the late 20th century. How did the Tibetan civilization maintain such power and flexibility? How did the Tibetan civilization come in conflict and how did it attain reconciliation with neighboring civilizations? And how have elements of the Tibetan civilization been transmitted in modern society, even after the country itself ceased to exist? To find answers to such questions, we shall analyze the historical aspects and transmission of the Tibetan civilization from various academic angles.
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Type C

A Study of the Vādhūla Śrautasūtra

Coordinators: IKARI, Yasuke; FUJII, Masato (2015.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
The main purpose of this joint study is the examination of the ritual manuals of the Vādhūla school of the Yajurveda, whose original manuscripts were discovered by the coordinator of this joint study in the Kerala State of South India. The texts of the Vādhūla school had been taken up by the scholars with the secondary defective manuscripts only available back at the time. The discovery of the new original manuscripts has drastically changed the situation and we are now in a far better position to get almost the full picture of the original texts of this Vādhūla school. We have been preparing the editions of the fundamental texts of this school which have been requested by the scholars of Vedic philology. In this joint study, we proceed to take up the texts of two significant rituals of the Vedic Śrautasūtra, and conduct comprehensive examinations of them. They are the rituals of the Soma (Agniṣṭoma) and the Construction of the Fire-altar (Agnicayana). The former is the central core of the entire Vedic ritual tradition starting from the Rig Veda, the oldest Vedic literature, and the latter represents the culmination of the history of Vedic culture, the reformation and restructure both social and cultural of the middle Vedic age. Our researches will be carried out by combining two types of studies: one is joint reading and examination of the manuscripts of the concerned portions of the Vādhūla Śrautasūtra (6th, 7th and 8th Chapters) by all the members, and the other one consisting of the respective reports of important topics from the concerned rituals by the coordinator and the members. Our plan at the end of the joint study is to publish a critical edition and an annotated English translation of the three chapters of the Vādhūla Śrautasūtra.
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A Study on Mao Zedong from the Viewpoint of Humanities

Coordinator: ISHIKAWA, Yoshihiro (2015.4 - 2018.3)
Project Description
After his death in 1976, Mao Zedong's importance has, at least on the surface, been wearing thin all over China. In contemporary China, however, his legacy remains significant, affecting the patterns of thinking of the people in general, and has become a kind of icon of the anti-inequality sentiment among the people. On the other hand, the image of Mao as a commanding leader is shared by the current political leadership of China and determines the discourse about the history of the Chinese Communist Party. Although it seems that much ink has been spent on Mao, there are still many unanswered questions. In this research seminar, we shall investigate various aspects of Mao, mainly from the viewpoint of humanities, focusing on his image in history, literature, art, and so on.
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A Study on the Frontier and Trans-frontier in Pre-modern Eurasia

Coordinator: INABA, Minoru (2015.4 - 2018.3)
Project Description
Eurasia has been divided into several historical/ cultural spheres since ancient times. We can, however, observe considerably vigorous interactions and exchanges across the frontiers/ boundaries of these spheres in the pre-modern period. It is almost certain that the trans-frontier activities, namely the activities which brought various people, objects, and notions from beyond the frontier, provided each sphere with historical and cultural dynamism. However, it is not at all an easy task to address questions about the reasons why these spheres were essentially divided and have been maintained as separate, as the answer may be deeply related to the fundamental subsistence of human society and culture. In this research seminar, issues such as the physical background of the emergence of each historical/ cultural sphere in pre-modern Eurasia, as well as how trans-frontier activities were made possible, are to be addressed, employing various viewpoints and methodologies, in order to contribute to the general understanding of the frontier.
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Studies on the Buddhist Cave-temples in the Northern Dynasties

Coordinator: OKAMURA, Hidenori (2015.4 - 2018.3)
Project Description
The Yungang Caves, located near the city of Datong in Shanxi province in China, are a group of Buddhist cave-temples excavated (built?) in the second half of the fifth century by the Northern Wei dynasty. Between 1938 and 1944, following the investigations of the Xiangtangshan Caves in the Hebei province and the Longmen Caves in the Henan province, the Research Institute of Oriental Culture, the predecessor of the Institute for Research in Humanities at Kyoto University, carried out investigations of the Yungang Caves and the neighboring sites. A report of these investigations was published by Mizuno Seiichi and Nagahiro Toshio, in the form of the voluminous Yunkang (1951-1956) in 16 volumes and 32 fascicules . This research seminar sets about researching the visual materials and field notes collected during these investigations with the goal of systematically digitizing them and actively promoting their further use by making them available to the public.
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Sources of Ancient Chinese History

Coordinator: ASAHARA, Tatsuro (2016.4 - 2019.3)
Project Description
This is an introductory seminar for interested members who wish to study ancient Chinese history, especially that of the pre-Qin period. By reading basic articles and historical sources, participating members will be able to develop their understanding and increase their knowledge on the topic. They are also expected to help each other to this end.
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Fundamental Research of the Kanseki Repository

Coordinator: WITTERN, Christian (2016.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
The research seminar “Fundamental Topics in Digital Humanities” held from April 2013 to March 2016 produced as one of its results a first preliminary release of a comprehensive repository of premodern Chinese texts based on clear philological principles called “Kanseki Repository” (www.kanripo.org). However, due to the limited time, only a very rough draft could be produced and some important texts are still missing. This seminar will follow up on these results by improving the scope and descriptory depth of the texts and by developing exemplary methods for using the repository for answering specific research questions. Among these, support for the creation of text-critical editions and a general survey of the characters used in the Repository are on the agenda, but the actual plan will be developed by the members upon start of the seminar.
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Buddhist Sutras and Doctrines for Chinese Laity

Coordinator: FUNAYAMA, Tōru (2016.4 - 2020.3)
Project Description
Various developments of Chinese Buddhism achieved during the 4th-7th centuries were led not only by monastics but also by the laity, for example emperors and literati. Questions such as: "How should we evaluate the quality of lay understanding of Buddhist doctrines?” or “What limitations did the laity’s understanding of Buddhist doctrine have?” can prove surprisingly difficult to answer. Building on the achievements of research seminars on Chinese religion formerly conducted at this institute, the present research seminar aims at a careful reading of materials such as The Expanded Collection for Glorifying and Elucidating the Law (Guang hong ming ji, 7th c.), in order to come up with a clear picture of lay Buddhism.
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Study on the Excavated Manuscripts of the Qin Dynasty

Coordinator: MIYAKE, Kiyoshi (2016.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
In 2002, city remains dating from the Zhanguo to the Han period were excavated near the village of Liye, Longshan, Hunan province, and over 38,000 strips and boards were discovered. These strips comprise administrative documents dated from 222BCE to 208BCE. This suggests that the area around Liye, a small mountain village located near the boundary of Hunan, Hubei, and Chongqing, was incorporated into the Qin administrative system after the unification carried out by the First Emperor. In this project, we will examine these manuscripts closely, in order to shed light on the political system of the early Chinese emperor. In addition to the Liye discoveries, we will also analyse several Qin strips of unknown origin, which had been smuggled to Hong Kong and recently (in 2003) repatriated by the Yuelu Academy of Hunan University. Several parts of this material, including calendars and records of judicial processes during the Qin, have been already published. Photos and transcriptions of the Qin statutes and ordinances that were found among these strips will also appear soon. Utilizing this material, we intend to achieve our above-mentioned goal.
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A Bibliographic Research on Old Chinese Books Previously Housed in the Kyoto Institute of the Academy of Oriental Culture

Coordinator: YAGI, Takeshi (2016.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
The Kyoto Institute of the Academy of Oriental Culture was established in 1929 using a grant-in-aid from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, and it has hence developed into the Department of Oriental Studies of the Institute for Research in Humanities, Kyoto University. The Institute has inherited all the old Chinese books that were once housed in the old one, and the details of the collection can be seen in the Catalogue of Old Chinese Books housed in the Kyoto Institute of the Academy of Oriental Culture, published in 1938. This collection is well known and highly valued in the academic world, particularly because it contains a series of books that once belonged to Tao Xiang, a famous bookkeeper in Tianjin, China. Our research project reexamines the information in the Catalogue and attempts to enhance the accuracy of the Kanseki database, an online resource based on the Catalogue. The project involves the creation of an additional database on the prefaces and postscripts of the books. It will also involve the collection of information about Ex-libris Ownership Stamps and their publication in pictorial books. In the near future, as part of the celebrations of the 90th and 100th anniversaries of the institute, exhibitions will be held with the objective of reviewing and restructuring oriental studies in Japan.
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Buddhist Sculptures and Their Inscriptions in the Longmen Caves of the Northern Dynasties

Coordinator: INAMOTO, Yasuo (2017.4 - 2020.3)
Project Description
The Longmen Caves are one of the most important Buddhist sites in East Asia. In 1941, Mizuno Seiichi and Nagahiro Toshio from the Institute of Oriental Studies (now the Department of Oriental Studies, Institute for Research in Humanities) published the report “A Study of the Buddhist Cave-Temples at Lung-mên, Ho-nan” after conducting fieldwork in the area. The report remains relevant to all research on the Longmen Caves today. Later on, in the 1950s, the two above-mentioned scholars also published the highly acclaimed series entitled “Yun-Kang: The Buddhist Cave-Temples of the Fifth Century A.D. in North China”, dealing with the Yungang Caves in the 1950s. Since the Qing Dynasty, there have been many studies about the enormous number of inscriptions carved in the Longmen Caves. After Mizuno and Nagahiro's visit to the site, for a mere six days, many research topics have been left for scholars to further discuss. In the development of archeology in postwar China, comparative analysis of both textual and stylistic sources has generated new scholarly insights for future research. Yet, even within scholarship concerning the Northern Wei caves of Longmen, opinions remain sharply divided on fundamental issues such as the commissioning and the construction process of the caves and the dating of the major statues. Recently, the Institute of Oriental Studies has identified a rich collection of rubbings of the Longmen inscriptions. The proposed project therefore continues the Institute’s tradition of researching Buddhist cave temples, aiming to reorganize and make full use of the information gathered thus far to rethink the Northern Dynasties statues and their context. The project focuses on reconfirming the transcriptions of the inscriptions and understanding their contents. Based on the information gained in the first stage of our research, we shall consider issues such as the process of creating the caves and the style and iconography of the sculptures through a comprehensive study integrating art-historical, archeological, historical, religious, and social perspectives. In so doing, we hope to form a common foundation of knowledge that will serve as the basis for future Longmen studies.
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Modern Kyoto and Culture

Coordinator: TAKAGI, Hiroshi (2017.4 - 2020.3)
Project Description
This research project will look at modern Kyoto and modern culture, examining them in relation to each other. Kyoto, nowadays visited by more than 55 million people every year, is the most popular tourist city in the world. The city has been often described with expressions reminiscent of an elegant, aristocratic culture, such as “Kyoto, where the Japanese culture was born,” “the culture of hospitality”, which have also become the promotional lines for the relocation of the Agency of Cultural Affairs to Kyoto. Such images of Kyoto were clearly constructed politically and socially during the modern period. With this in mind, we would like to reconsider several topics concerning the culture of modern Kyoto, including the issue of marginality, the life of the common people, sexuality in the red-light districts and the problem of discrimination, etc. We will also investigate the political significance of culture and its relations to local communities. The project members, specialists in various fields such as history, politics, education, social movements, economy, society, religion, knowledge, arts, cinema, literature, architecture, and garden design, among others, will step outside their areas of expertise to rethink the culture of modern Kyoto in a broader framework. Based on the results of collaborative research projects that we have conducted so far, i.e., "Research on Modern Kyoto" (2003-05), "Research on Modern “Old Capital”" (2006-10), "Modern Emperor System and Society" (2011-16), we plan to initiate a joint research project, where we will approach the topic of locality from an interdisciplinary and critical perspective..
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Humanities in the 21st Century: An Attempt at Understanding Our Age

Coordinators: OKADA, Akeo; KOSEKI, Takashi; SATŌ, Junji (2018.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
This research project puts forth three chief aims. 1. The world we are living in is filled with a sense of helplessness. No one can predict its future. When and how was such a world fashioned? What are its essential qualities? Our project tackles these questions from the viewpoint of ‘the crisis of the humanities’. 2. The project adopts a humanist approach, distinct from that of social science. What is central in such an approach is historical inquiry into the origins of ‘Our Age’. The 1970s will doubtlessly be a focus. 3. The project places an emphasis upon the artistic aspect of ‘Our Age’, given the fact that, along with ‘the crisis of the humanities’, ‘the crisis of art’ is form of manifestation for ‘the crisis of human beings’. The project will not only examine various artistic phenomena of ‘Our Age’, but will also attempt to forge meaningful partnerships with those artists who have been painstakingly engaged in artistic creation in such a helpless world. The project adopts a sort of ‘triarchy’ structure. By appointing three leaders, Okada, Sato, and Koseki, each of whom has a different academic background, the project will aim to carry out genuinely inter-disciplinary studies.
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A Study about the Formation of Business Circles in Imperial Japan: 1895-1945

Coordinator: KAGOTANI, Naoto (2018.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
In the last half of the 19th century, Japan saw the transfer of power from Tokugawa to the imperial court, and the transformation from a system of government based on the bakufu (幕府) domains to a unified state. This was also the period that witnessed the transition to a capitalist economy and the establishment of a modern Japanese state system. After the Meiji Constitution was promulgated in 1889, laying the foundations for the political structure of the state, Japan gradually became unified under the force of nationalism. Therefore, friction increased with Western countries that opposed Japan’s advances. In the Meiji period, Japan entered into the first Sino-Japanese War (日清戦争, 1894-95) and the Russo-Japanese War (日露戦争, 1904-05), and went on to annex Taiwan in 1895 and Korea in 1910. After these two wars, Imperial Japan emerged. The Meiji leadership was assumed by men such as Ito Hirofumi (伊藤博文) and Yamagata Aritomo(山県有明) who came from Choshu (長州) Matsukata Masayoshi (松方正義), who came from Satsuma (薩摩). Es-pecially Matsukata brought to the government comprehensive financial skills. Although many positions were open to outsiders from other domains, the senior statesmen (genro, 元老) came from the Satsuma and Choshu circle. On the other hand, the Meiji government was still in a precarious position, faced with the runaway inflation incurred by printing an excess of paper monies. A campaign of retrenchment began under the direction on Matsukata, who devoted more than sixteen years of his career to Meiji finances. A new land tax (地租改正) and the campaign “Increase Production and Promote Industry (殖産興業),” management of the currency, the establishment of the Bank of Japan (日本銀行, 1882), and adherence to the Global Gold Standard (国際金本位制) were all carried out under his direction. However, starting in 1886, government notes were converted to silver, and a silver standard was established. To help put an end to inflation, factories in the industrial sector, excluding strategic industries such as munitions, minting of currency and communications, were sold off comparatively cheap, to private businessmen, such as Mitsui and Mitsubishi. Close to govern-ment leaders and sharing their goals, these men emerged as leaders of future Zaibatsu(財閥), centered on the Japanese business circle. This Japanese business circle has been called Zaikai (財界). Our new joint research project aims to analyse the role of Zaikai in Imperial Japan’s expansion until 1945. We will use primary materi-als,especially the diaries of Japanese businessmen. We will focus on the diaries of Tutumibayashi Kazue (Jakaruta), Miyoshi Tokusaburo (Tai-pei), and Miwa Tunesaburo (Nagoya).
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Warfare and Diplomacy in Pre-modern Eastern Eurasia

Coordinators: IWAI, Shigeki; FURUMATSU, Takashi (2018.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
In Eastern Eurasia, there have been constant exchanges and interactions between pastoral nomads of the eastern part of the Eurasian Steppe and settled agriculturalists of China proper. Northern pastoral nomads founded several powerful nomadic dynasties, based on a strong cavalry force, which was the most preeminent military technology in pre-modern times; they confronted the Chinese dynasties and even conquered China several times. Relations between pastoral nomads from the steppe and agrarian people of China were dynamic and diverse, including military conflict, domination, coexistence and fusion. They can be regarded as the basic patterns of Eastern Eurasian history. This project will focus on the Southern Song history book "Sanchao beimeng huibian", which mainly deals with the diplomatic relations of the Song dynasty with the Jin dynasty of the Jurchen people during the first half of the 12th century, when the Jin dynasty established hegemony in the multi-state system of Eastern Eurasia. We will use the documents included in this book to consider analyze the characteristics of warfare and diplomacy between Nomadic dynasties and Chinese dynasties. In addition, we will examine the impact and influence of the Jin conquest of Northern China on the politics, society and culture of China, including Northern China under the Jin and Southern China under the Southern Song.
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A Study of East Asia in the Third Century

Coordinator: MORISHITA, Shōji (2018.4 - 2021.3)
Project Description
The purpose of this seminar is to clarify the regional features and the relationships among the societies of China, Korea and Japan in the 3rd century. In this age, after the collapse of the Han dynasty and the formation of Three Kingdoms, the tribal societies of Korea and Japan had developed to the Chiefdom stage. San-Guo-Zhi (三国志) describes these local societies and their changes in detail; also, the number of archaeological records of this area has been increasing recently. Through textual, historical and archaeological studies, we will point out the significant role played by local societies in 3rd century Asian history.
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